군산출장안마⇩24시출장샵┚군산섹스 마사지【군산콜걸추천】↺《군산동대구역 마사지》☃군산안마방 못쌈♔군산포항 마사지 후기▤군산대구 전립선 마사지☁군산천안 출장 만남♟군산산남동 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

전주출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

군산출장안마▀예약╮군산섹스 마사지【군산병점 안마방】╙《군산안마방 torrent》✪군산연산동 마사지ル군산안마방 백마ヤ군산코스프레 안마방☼군산가산디지털단지역 안마방◙군산안마방 porn

The governments of more than 190 nations 경산여인숙 가격 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

군산출장안마☊출장부르는법╥군산섹스 마사지【군산타이페이 마사지】W《군산분당 마사지》①군산천안 오피스卐군산광주 안마방✁군산진접 안마방♟군산하남 안마방♦군산마사지 어플

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

군산출장안마✲24시출장샵┿군산섹스 마사지【군산마사지 초대】╡《군산안마방 신고》⇪군산선릉역 안마방╤군산하마사키 마오 마사지◦군산마사지 수면실☂군산발리 마사지◥군산안마방 위험

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories bitsnoop.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

군산출장안마♭출장부르는법⇞군산섹스 마사지【군산유재석 안마방】✣《군산태국 에스코트》⇌군산마사지 추천υ군산신림 모텔♪군산호텔 출장⇙군산해수욕장 마사지 토렌트↺군산광안리 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 연천파주 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

군산출장안마♦예약►군산섹스 마사지【군산중국모델 슈가】£《군산안마방 발기》ム군산부산 해운대 출장┊군산안마방 왕가슴녀✗군산군포 안마방⇊군산박시연 마사지╆군산김무열 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 진주출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

군산출장안마군산원룸 출장

  • 김천거제도 모텔 추천
  • 군산마사지 서비스
  • 군산출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    군산출장안마♜24시출장샵§군산섹스 마사지【군산안마방 존댓말】☁《군산오사카 마사지》⇈군산어깨통증 마사지レ군산성감대 마사지╁군산진영 안마방☾군산출장 선입금┹군산상추 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 포항일반인 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, airportservice.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    김해여성 전신 마사지 카지노사이트 화성안마방 보빨
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    군산출장안마⇟예약금없는출장샵↼군산섹스 마사지【군산홈케어 마사지】█《군산출장마사wl》★군산가슴 마사지ナ군산안마➵군산하노이 마사지↘군산콜걸추천✏군산임산부 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 창원건강 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    군산출장안마⇊출장부르는법✯군산섹스 마사지【군산모텔출장마사지샵】↺《군산독산동 마사지》♮군산마사지 품번♨군산청주 용암동 안마방☵군산남자 안마방ノ군산안마방 20대┽군산수원 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대전출장안마 .

    거창안마방 대화
    진안출장색시미녀언니 서울출장안마 봉화거제 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    군산출장안마┈예약금없는출장샵┊군산섹스 마사지【군산커플 마사지 후기】⇀《군산요괴 마사지》┷군산해변 마사지◦군산석계 마사지✉군산야탑 마사지♩군산이태원 마사지ニ군산노원 마사지 추천

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 원주출장샵 .

    군산출장안마╎24시출장샵↺군산섹스 마사지【군산sod 마사지】♛《군산포항 타이 마사지》✍군산상록수 안마방▶군산여성 전용 마사지◐군산구리 마사지♪군산수유 마사지✐군산안마방 영업시간

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 창원출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 예천광주 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    군산출장안마↔예약■군산섹스 마사지【군산야탑 마사지 후기】ヤ《군산관자놀이 마사지》┶군산광주 대딸방↔군산대구 서구 안마방☆군산범계 마사지κ군산서울 출장안마▷군산안마방 애널

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    군산출장안마ム예약금없는출장샵┬군산섹스 마사지【군산다낭 마사지】├《군산여성 마사지 후기》☏군산마사지 오일♠군산선릉 안마방☆군산중국전통마사지⇛군산포승읍 안마방♐군산병점 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 청양대구 모텔 가격 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The mycamp.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. lovejg.xyz .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 강원도안마방 동창 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 부산출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    군산출장안마┗예약♨군산섹스 마사지【군산안마방 하늘이】☼《군산상봉동 안마방》♟군산인천공항 마사지α군산송우리 안마방┱군산정선 마사지↘군산상록수 안마방⇅군산창동역 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 대전출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 전주출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    군산출장안마┆예약금없는출장샵↯군산섹스 마사지【군산마사지 받다가】♈《군산서산시 안마방》◄군산19 마사지❀군산모텔 다방 가격❈군산근육통 마사지┩군산마사지 단속☭군산출장전화번호

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    영덕여수 안마방
    카지노사이트 영동광주 터미널 근처 모텔 온라인카지노
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    군산출장안마⇩예약║군산섹스 마사지【군산안마방 통화기록】»《군산마사지 구분》ⓔ군산구로 안마방⇡군산광주 안마방⇃군산대구 출장마사지◙군산안마방 수면☈군산군포 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.군산출장안마군산삿포로 안마방γ군산김해 마사지▶《군산출장오피》군산여관 비용↓군산출장마사지♙군산광주 안마방◎군산목포 마사지♘군산출장샵24시출장샵군산대전 마사지 후기╏군산경산 마사지0〈군산야몽 마사지〉군산실제 안마방⇃군산남성전용마사지◤군산대전 안마방♬군산출장마사지♦군산출장안마시흥제주 연동 마사지군산여자 마사지↬군산마석 안마방♠‹군산안마방 예약›군산안마방 사귄☀군산어깨 마사지メ군산호치민 리버티 마사지 가격☀군산에스테틱 마사지◐군산일산 타이 마사지♪군산마닐라 마사지⇣﹛군산구미 모텔 추천﹜군산용현동 마사지⊙군산해수욕 마사지✡군산대전 모텔 가격╩군산교대 마사지θ군산아가씨 출장╩군산홍대 안마방 위치⇩﹛군산부산 타이 마사지﹜군산마사지⊙군산응암 마사지✯군산1인샵 마사지☪군산강남 안마방 후기◙군산타이 마사지 후기◑군산군포 안마방☁〈군산부산 안마방 추천〉군산마사지 단속 시간♩군산제주도 안마방❦군산삼산동 출장┷군산남순 마사지コ예약횡성안마방 알바출장부르는법군산안산 고잔동 마사지⊙군산안마방 몰카 유출~ 대화 대박임┭(군산조건 카페)군산발 마사지➻군산동네 마사지◦군산마사지♫군산안마방 서비스┠군산출장안마군산출장안마서울출장안마군산사상 출장군산부천 안마방군산순천 중국 마사지군산출장안마추천군산출장안마군산항문 마사지▧ 군산마카오 마사지►[군산구미 안마방]군산코코넛오일 마사지♬군산의정부 여관➴군산광명사거리 안마방↕군산조건⇛이천아스카 키라라 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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